Vertebroplasty is a medical procedure commonly used to treat compression fractures in the spine, particularly in the vertebrae. Compression fractures can occur due to conditions such as osteoporosis, tumors, or trauma. Here’s a simplified explanation for a college student:

What is Vertebroplasty?

Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive surgical procedure aimed at stabilizing and relieving pain caused by vertebral compression fractures. These fractures often result in the collapse of the vertebral body, causing pain and potential deformity in the spine.

Procedure Steps:

  • Diagnosis: The first step involves diagnosing the compression fracture through imaging techniques like X-rays or MRI scans.
  • Preparation: The patient is usually positioned on their stomach or side. The skin over the affected area is cleaned and numbed using local anesthesia.
  • Needle Insertion: A hollow needle is then carefully inserted into the fractured vertebra under the guidance of imaging equipment, such as fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy provides real-time X-ray images to ensure precise needle placement.
  • Bone Cement Injection: Once the needle is in the correct position, a special medical-grade cement (usually a type of acrylic) is injected into the fractured vertebra. This cement hardens quickly, stabilizing the bone and providing support.
  • Recovery: After the cement is injected, the needle is removed, and the patient is observed for a short period. Recovery time is generally quick, and many patients experience pain relief soon after the procedure.


The primary goal of vertebroplasty is to reduce pain and improve the structural integrity of the affected vertebra. By stabilizing the fractured bone, the procedure can help restore vertebral height, relieve pain, and enhance overall spine function.


  • Minimally Invasive: Vertebroplasty is considered a minimally invasive procedure, as it doesn’t require large incisions.
  • Rapid Pain Relief: Many patients experience immediate pain relief after the procedure.
  • Improved Function: Stabilizing the fractured vertebra can enhance the patient’s ability to move and perform daily activities.


While vertebroplasty is generally safe and effective, like any medical procedure, it has potential risks and complications. It’s essential for healthcare providers to carefully assess each patient’s condition and determine the most appropriate treatment plan.

In summary, vertebroplasty is a medical intervention designed to treat compression fractures in the spine by stabilizing the affected vertebrae with the injection of bone cement.